Alcoholism is a condition in which an individual loses control over his alcohol intake in that he is constantly unable to refrain from drinking once he begins. According to Keller and Vera alcoholism is characterized by the repeated drinking of alcoholic beverages to an extent that exceeds customary use or compliance with the social customs of the community. That adversely affects the drinker’s health or interferes with his social or economic functioning.
Gandhiji regarded the consumption of liquor as a major social evil and favored complete prohibition in India. With this in view, the Constitution of India included Article 47 in the Directive Principle of State Policy. It states ,”The State shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of use, except for medicinal purposes, of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health.”After independence ,some states took up the programme of prohibition earnestly and some half-heartedly.
Article 47 is reduced to only written document, which never came into practical world, rather the youth is more susceptible – their celebrations or parties are incomplete without alcohol.
This throws light on the phenomenal increase in alcohol consumption. According to World Health Organization, Indians consumed 2.4 liters of alcohol on average in 2005. Which increased to 4.3 liters in 2010 and increased up to 5.6 liters in 2016.
Alcohol use is directly associated with education ,social class and occupation.The amount of drinking also increases with age and duration. Social drinkers generally graduate to become hazardous and pathological drinkers over time. More than 50 percent of regular alcohol users also fall into the category of hazardous drinking.
The reason behind Psychological view is that practically all alcoholics shows the mark of deprivation of emotional needs during childhood. Clinebell reports four main types of parental attitudes which happens to be associated with alcoholism in adulthood. All of which tend to produce trauma and emotional deprivation in the child.
4. Success workship
These factors are the key ones in the formation of an insecure personality resulting in falling prey to alcohol is indicated by the fact that psychological resulting in falling prey to alcohol .
According to some scholars, there seems to be a definite connection between alcoholism and personality maladjustment. Initially, a person drinks to seek refuge for his problems of life or to find a temporary respite from his troubles. Gradually, becomes dependent on it.
The another reason – Sociological reasons for taking alcohol are essentially the same as for taking drugs .
3.A dominant sub – culture.
The various consequences of alcoholism are personal misery, family budget, family discord, loss of wages. Failure of health, accidents and cost in damage claims, monetary damage .Social deviance and social problems emerge from the use and abuse of alcohol.
A good number of persons arrested for crimes like rapes, burglary, murder and theft are those who committed them under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol is a major factor in highway accidents. Besides, it contributes to thousand of deaths every year. The high percentage of admission to hospitals, particularly mental hospital, is related to persons with alcoholic disorders or drinking problems. Other socially deviant acts related to wife bettering, thefts, bribes and suicides. Studies on suicides, point out that the suicide rate is 50 times higher among alcoholics /drug users than others.
This shows, with the impact of globalization, urbanization, industrialization, media influence and changing lifestyle, alcohol has entered the lives of Indians in a big and unrestricted manner.
The treatment methods of alcoholics which can be adopted –
2.Resocialization through counselling
3.Detoxification in hospitals
4.Role of family
5.Changing Values through Education
Morever, Alchohol is the major constituent of underground Illegal trade. Many children are employed in the Alcohol producing factories.
Hope we will look into all these factors and minimize if not stop our Alcohol intake.
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